List of Standards/ Certification Schemes, Assessment and Certification criteria

1.0       LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)
      Governed by USGBC (United States Green Building Council) and GBCI (Green Building Certification Institute)

1.1  General  The LEED Green Building Rating Systems are voluntary, consensus-based, and market-driven. Based on existing and proven technology, they evaluate environmental performance from a whole building perspective over a building’s life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building in design, construction, and operation.

In LEED 2009, the allocation of points between credits is based on the potential environmental impacts and human benefits of each credit with respect to a set of impact categories. The impacts are defined as the environmental or human effect of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the building, such as greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel use, toxins and carcinogens, air and water pollutants, indoor environmental conditions. A combination of approaches, including energy modeling, life-cycle assessment, and transportation analysis, is used to quantify each type of impact.

The resulting allocation of points among credits is called credit weighting.
LEED points are awarded on a 100-point scale, and credits are weighted to reflect their potential environmental impacts. Additionally, 10 bonus credits are available, four of which address regionally specific environmental issues. A project must satisfy all prerequisites and earn a minimum number of points to be certified.

The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) administers LEED certification for all commercial and institutional projects registered under any LEED Rating System. USGBC administers the development and ongoing improvement of the LEED rating systems.

To earn LEED certification, the applicant project must satisfy all the prerequisites and qualify for a minimum number of points to attain the established project ratings as listed below. Having satisfied the basic prerequisites of the program, applicant projects are then rated according to their degree of compliance within the rating system.

LEED certification is obtained after submitting an application documenting compliance with the requirements of the rating system as well as paying registration and certification fees. Certification is granted solely by the Green Building Certification Institute responsible for the third party verification of project compliance with LEED requirements. Recently the application process for new construction certification has been streamlined electronically, via a set of active PDFs that automates the process of filing the documentation."

1.2       LEED measures

  • Sustainable Sites

Site selection and development are important components of a building’s sustainability. The Sustainable Sites category discourages development on previously undeveloped land; seeks to minimize a building's impact on ecosystems and waterways; encourages regionally appropriate landscaping; rewards smart transportation choices; controls stormwater runoff; and promotes reduction of erosion, light pollution, heat island effect and construction-related pollution."

  • Water Efficiency

Buildings are major users of our potable water supply. The goal of the Water Efficiency category is to encourage smarter use of water, inside and out. Water reduction is typically achieved through more efficient appliances, fixtures and fittings inside and water-conscious landscaping outside.

  • Energy & Atmosphere

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, buildings use 39% of the energy and 74% of the electricity produced each year in the United States. The Energy & Atmosphere category encourages a wide variety of energy-wise strategies: commissioning; energy use monitoring; efficient design and construction; efficient appliances, systems and lighting; the use of renewable and clean sources of energy, generated on-site or off-site; and other innovative measures.

  • Materials & Resources

During both the construction and operations phases, buildings generate a lot of waste and use large quantities of materials and resources. The Materials & Resources category encourages the selection of sustainably grown, harvested, produced and transported products and materials. It promotes waste reduction as well as reuse and recycling, and it particulary rewards the reduction of waste at a product’s source.

  • Indoor Environmental Quality

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that Americans spend about 90% of their day indoors, where the air quality can be significantly worse than outside. The Indoor Environmental Quality category promotes strategies that improve indoor air as well as those that provide access to natural daylight and views and improve acoustics.

  • Locations & Linkages
    The LEED for Homes rating system recognizes that much of a home's impact on the environment comes from where it is located and how it fits into its community. The Locations & Linkages category encourages building on previously developed or infill sites and away from environmentally sensitive areas. Credits reward homes that are built near already-existing infrastructure, community resources and transit – in locations that promote access to open space for walking, physical activity and time outdoors.
  • Awareness & Education

The LEED for Homes rating system acknowledges that a home is only truly green if the people who live in it use its green features to maximum effect. The Awareness & Education category encourages home builders and real estate professionals to provide homeowners, tenants and building managers with the education and tools they need to understand what makes their home green and how to make the most of those features.

  • Innovation in Design
    The Innovation in Design category provides bonus points for projects that use innovative technologies and strategies to improve a building’s performance well beyond what is required by other LEED credits, or to account for green building considerations that are not specifically addressed elsewhere in LEED. This category also rewards projects for including a LEED Accredited Professional on the team to ensure a holistic, integrated approach to the design and construction process.
  • Regional Priority

USGBC’s regional councils, chapters and affiliates have identified the most important local environmental concerns, and six LEED credits addressing these local priorities have been selected for each region of the country. A project that earns a regional priority credit will earn one bonus point in addition to any points awarded for that credit. Up to four extra points can be earned in this way.

1.3       Scope: Homes/ Neighbourhood development (in pilot)/Commercial Interiors
Core and Shell/ New Construction/Schools, Healthcare, Retail

1.4       Levels Certified :40-49 points/ Silver 50-59 points/ Gold 60-79 points Platinum80 points and above

1.5       Pros:   Encourages collaborative working within project team
Well recognised scheme, used to promote sustainability in buildings
Documented evidence that LEED has commercial benefits

1.6       Cons:   Not adapted to suit other climates/locations/ requirements outside of the US
Does not require measurement of performance for all certified buildings (only Platinum).

2.0       ISO (International Standard Organization)  14001 -14004
Governed by the International Standards Organisation. Geneva, Switzerland

2.1       General  The ISO 14001 environmental management system standard ISO 14001 was published in September of 1996 and is the most widely used ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) standard (ISO, 2002). 

The ISO 14001 is a generic EMS standard, since it can be applied to any organization large or small, whatever its product or service is, in any sector of industry and regardless of the organization being a business enterprise, a public administration, or a government department (ISO, 2002).

ISO 14001 is a five step process with the steps being: environmental policy, planning, implementation and operation, checking and corrective action, and management review (ISO, 1996a; Starkey, 1998). It does not specify levels of environmental performance; these should be specified by the organization.

ISO’s aim is to provide an overall strategic approach to the organization's environmental policy, its plans, and its actions (ISO, 2002).
It does not establish absolute requirements for performance beyond the commitments in the policy of the organization and its obligation to comply with applicable legal requirements and other requirements. Thus, two organizations carrying out similar operations and having an EMS in place, but having different performance, can both conform to its requirements.

An environmental management system, as defined by the British Standards Institute (1994), is “the organizational structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for determining and implementing environmental policy”, or as defined by Netherwood (1998) “a tool which organizations are using to facilitate implementation of environmental policy”. The management system standards provide the organization with a model to follow in the establishment of the management system (Netherwood, 1998). The two most prominent EMS schemes are: ISO 14001
and Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS).

2.2       ISO 14001 EMS monitoring and measurements

Operation of production and manufacturing equipment and processes associated with significant environmental aspects, and pollution control equipment.

Some specific routine monitoring  that should be done, and measurements that should be made include:

· Emissions to air, discharges to water, and solid waste disposal

· Environmental impacts on air, water, land, biota, ecology, humans

· Energy use

· Handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals, fuels, hazardous materials and wastes

· Training needs, training conducted, employee environmental awareness and competence

· Communications from interested parties, and the organization’s responses

· Emergency response incidents

· Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for environmental sampling and laboratory analysis

· Effectiveness and timeliness of corrective and preventive actions

· Environmental performance of contractors

Instruments that are used to take measurements for the EMS must be regularly calibrated to assure the accuracy of all readings. And the organization’s compliance with environmental legislation and regulations must be routinely monitored, to fulfill the commitment in the environmental policy.

2.3       Scope
Any organization,  large or small and whatever the product or service.  Any sector of Industry.  Business enterprises, public administration, government department.

2.4       Certification/ rating levels
Depends on the EMS 3rd party certification program/scheme.

2.5       Pro:
It is an International standard, can be applied globally. A good frame work and tool to implement Environmental policy and EMS. Easy to adopt in certification programs and to integrate with other Management standards and use in certification schemes. Open to any sector of activity.
2.6       Cons:

Only looks at environmental impacts not at sustainability. No comparative baseline for benchmarking. Does not require as criteria pre assessment and time frame for regular audits to establish baseline performance. No verification or 3rd party certification required. Environmental statements and disclosure not required.  Can apply to the whole of an organization or specific elements/ processes . Identification of environmental aspects can consider any issues the organization deems significant. Subjective to targets of applicant/user.

3.0       ISO 31000:2009   Provides principles and generic guidelines on risk management   Governed by the International Standards Organization. Geneva, Switzerland 
3.1       General
ISO 31000:2009 Provides principles and generic guideline on risk management – it is a tool.
It is intended that ISO 31000:2009 be utilized to harmonize risk management processes in existing and future standards. It provides a common approach in support of standards dealing with specific risks and/or sectors, and does not replace those standards.
ISO 31000:2009 can be applied throughout the life of an organization, and to a wide range of activities, including strategies and decisions, operations, processes, functions, projects, products, services and assets. ISO 31000:2009 can be applied to any type of risk, whatever its nature, whether having positive or negative consequences.
This Standard recommends that organizations develop, implement and continuously improve a framework whose purpose is to integrate the process for managing risk into the organization's overall governance, strategy and planning, management, reporting processes, policies values and culture.

The generic approach described in this International Standard provides the principles and guidelines for managing any form of risk in a systematic, transparent and credible manner and within any scope and context. It is not intended to promote uniformity of risk management across organizations. The design and implementation of risk management plans and frameworks will need to take into account the varying needs of a specific organization, its particular objectives, context, structure, operations, processes, functions, projects, products, services, or assets and specific practices employed.

A key feature of this International Standard is the inclusion of “establishing the context” as an activity at the start of this generic risk management process. Establishing the context will capture the objectives of the organization, the environment in which it pursues those objectives, its stakeholders and the diversity of risk criteria – all of which will help reveal and assess the nature and complexity of its risks.

In this International Standard, the expressions “risk management” and “managing risk” are both used. In general terms, “risk management” refers to the architecture (principles, framework and process) for managing risks effectively, while “managing risk” refers to applying that architecture to particular risks.

ISO 31000:2009 is not intended for the purpose of certification.

3.2        ISO 31000 measurement: 

Through its guidelines it allows ‘organizations’ to establish an effective framework for risk management. An ‘organization’ will have to comply to the principles as outlined in the standard, comply to the necessary components of the frame work for effective risk management and follow the process.( these form the practical core of the standard)

The risk management process should be
⎯ an integral part of management,
⎯ embedded in the culture and practices, and
⎯ tailored to the business processes of the organization
Frame work : a company should have a strong mandate and commitment
⎯ define and endorse the risk management policy;
⎯ ensure that the organization's culture and risk management policy are aligned;
⎯ determine risk management performance indicators that align with performance indicators of the
⎯ align risk management objectives with the objectives and strategies of the organization;
⎯ ensure legal and regulatory compliance;
⎯ assign accountabilities and responsibilities at appropriate levels within the organization;
⎯ ensure that the necessary resources are allocated to risk management;
⎯ communicate the benefits of risk management to all stakeholders; and
⎯ ensure that the framework for managing risk continues to remain appropriate.
Design a frame work for managing risk and understand the organization and its context: Evaluate the organization's external and internal context
Implement risk management and follow the process
Monitor and review the frame work and continual improvement of the framework

3.3       Scope

This International Standard can be used by any public, private or community enterprise, association, group or individual. Therefore, this International Standard is not specific to any industry or sector.

3.4       Certification/level  

ISO 31000:2009 is not intended for the purpose of certification. It depends on the adoption of ISO 31000 principles , guidelines and risk management framework /implementation as part of ISO 14001, ISO 9001 certification or other certification programs.   

3.5       pro:
International standard, can be applied globally across all types of organizations, sectors, industries, products and be used within certification programs. The thrust is to enable organizations to integrate risk management into their existing management systems and not to create a new, extra or parallel system just for risk management.
Clearly, lessons have been learned from the negative history of other standards that have been tied to certification schemes. Companies will therefore not be able to hide behind an illusion of having a truly robust risk management system that a prescriptive ‘compliance certification’ scheme would encourage. Instead, use of the standard is voluntary and a company will have to think for itself and devise its own system to meet the principles and intent of ISO 31000.

3.6       cons:

It is not legislation and/or mandatory .It is not described as-,  and integral part of-, or as prerequisite for sustainability and sustainable management